Time slips away good definition even in physics. But people experience it, measure and we know that is very important for us - let's try to be late for the train only one second! It seems that many of the problems that need to be rendered in the knowledge base should include the time, the fourth dimension. I spent some of my publications on this issue and in one of them I gave an example of classification system such as fungi (a friend of mine, Maciej Szczepka is expert in mycology, it is why such example). But the criteria should be variable, depending on the age of the object. In other words, you must take into account the process of ontogenesis. Otherwise, the system will be badly classifiying objects. The same is true for example in the legal domain. For this to be possible it is advisable to use temporal logic.
Law changes over time, and the structure of legal knowledge is of critical importance. Legal knowledge is of dual nature: it can concern legal rules and legal cases, or it can concern factual aspects of cases. This in turn causes different types of belief in the legal domain. Moreover, legal domain is not deterministic, which makes reasoning even more complicated. Reasoning tasks must replace traditional analytical ones, as analytical tools arenot applicable here. Knowledge in the legal domain is specific and differs significantly from knowledge in other domains. Generally speaking, knowledge in other domains consists of facts, and beliefs. These are more or less independent and should be objective. The legal knowledge, instead, consists of facts but also of interpretations, classifications and opinions on legal issues. Moreover, in legal texts there are temporal references, either explicit or implicit.As for temporal relations that can be found in the legal texts, they belong to all combinations known from temporal logic, that is:
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As I wrote, Logos system is to be used for various scientific experiments in computer science, mainly in artificial intelligence. One of the directions is plan of building temporal knowledge base. I started cooperation with professor Maria Mach-Król wich is expert/specialist in temporal logic. I became interested in this subject around 1985, especially in event calculus. I was then inspired by works of prof. Robert Kowalski from Imperial College in London. I wrote some papers and designed knowledge representation language for expert systems using some temporal relations being one chapter of my Ph.D. thesis. I am convinced that our shared competence and cooperation should be fruitful and we expect to successfully build scientific/research prototype of temporal knowledge base and reasoning system using Logos. if we are successful, I add demo version for free download, may be with the very special version of Logos.
Prof. Maria Mach-Król (from UE in Katowice) has published books on temporal logic, one with Janina Jakubczyc, Ph.D. from the Department of Artificial Intelligence (led by prof. Mieczysław Owoc) at UE in Wrocław: